A wall painted to honour the hash enthusiast an teacher Frenchy Cannoli

Frenchy Cannoli - A genius to remember

Frenchy Cannoli - A genius to remember


With the death of the legend and hashashin Frenchy Cannoli on the 18th of July 2021, one of the most respected members of our community has suddenly been taken from us, his family and his friends. The influence of his work and lectures on todays hash culture can simply not be estimated high enough. Therefore he recognized that there is still a lot to be done and risks ahead, that cannabis culture and extraction companies specifically need to face soon to follow the steps towards a fair and sustainable relegalisation.

To build the future, we first have to preserve the past. He was therefore for example eager to create incentives for local farmers to remain cultivating their local landraces instead of unwillingly endangering their heritage by switching to fashionable and seemingly profitable Californian or European genetics.

In search of a suitable method to make his lectures accessible without any restrictions for an international and diverse audience, he more and more embraced social media platforms, foremost Instagram, where he and his wife Kimberly are in a lively exchange with their community every day.

Memorial Mural in Chambéry   by PyroOne                     Photo: @timozzzzzzz


It was only a question of time, until like minded enthusiasts would help to amplify Frenchys influence and carry his message as far as possible. He and his work was always accompanied by a growing number of associates and protegees around the world, who help spread his knowledge. Or as Frenchy put it: Spread THE knowledge we only had the privilege to witness, gather, hold and be able to pass on during our limited given time frame.

He helped us to never forget the proven techniques of the cultures, that spend centuries in perfecting the extraction methods with their respective resources and local unfavorable commodities.

Frenchy Cannoli literally was a genius to remember.

An eye for detail and zero zero time to waste

Time is essential, as Frenchy was never tired to make clear, when he was teaching the rituals of correct sampling, preparing and curing different forms of extracts. Therefore he spend the last time traveling and teaching the world about his techniques from his home in Mendocino in the notorious Emerald Triangle region of California, where he found a professional home at the House of Aficionado.

He saw the most efficient way to pass on the techniques, in creating free access to a number of workshops, interviews, FAQs and lectures, that enable people to appropriate these methods and hopefully improve them more and more by implementing them in larger scale extraction operations and technical or scientific innovations over future decades.

Instead of using his status as an exclusive gatekeeper, he was more of a keymaster. He helped people to gain access to terrains of knowledge and to internalize traditional methods in hands-on-demonstrations, that were not only prohibited in their economic or scientific execution by many governments and drug laws and therefore in danger of almost being forgotten. Of course, it would also have been in the interest of many short sighted, greedy business owners, who saw possible money making opportunities in keeping these secrets in a small circle of a chosen few entrepreneurs and pharmaceutical companies. He did not only give away valuable information, he created its value by his way of spreading the information.

He is widely responsible for the current recognition of the hash culture and wide spread awareness of many long forgotten work steps and detailed tutorials and significantly shaped not only the way we nowadays talk about extraction for example in his publication "The Lost Art of the Hashashin", but also the valuation and perspective that is taken towards the relative topic.

As adverse climate conditions and the need for improvisation with limited tools were often disregarded as a incalculable risk and manifestation of the local hardship, lack of education and poverty, Frenchys approach was to see these factors as the key to their unique quality. This attitude or seemed to have dominated all aspects of his professional life.

Frenchy was known to set to set the highest standards towards the sampled hash and the gentleness of the extraction, but never to play down or underestimated anyone. Even the observation or opinion of a beginner extractor or the question of a bystander, that might bring a broader background from their respective field of expertise, was always taken serious and answered in its full extend. He made sure to listen and watch, before he judged and was therefore able to see the small nuances, variations and inconsistencies in the outcome of certain washes or sieving runs and never tired of getting to the roots of certain phenomenons in his observations.

His personal story, knowledge, hard training and skill give him the routine and security to keep an open eye for significant details and an unbiased approach towards every new information. This shows his focus on potential future improvements and is the best possible way to gather data via research and enable to follow a truly sustainable approach.

A larger frame to sift information into knowledge

His live pursuit seemed to separate the trichome from the flower in manifolded and increasingly gentle ways and not only to understand every part of the process from seed over the growing, sifting, curing and packaging, but also to find explanations for the many observations he made, sampling hash for decades all around the world. He always seemed to be answering one questions by not being vain to ask three questions himself. Which may have gained him the reputation of being such a pleasant partner for a long and highly entertaining conversation for everyone involved.

Although he himself, as well as many formats throughout all forms of media, gave their best effort to capture his lessons and words, the spirit of Frenchy Cannoli could best be experienced by meeting and talking to him in person. An opportunity, that has now suddenly been taken from us sooner than anyone would have expected. We will do our best to carry his work, his techniques and hopefully also his particular humor as his quick and associative wit into every of our future projects and actions.

We are aware and deeply humbled by the role that has now fallen onto us as a global community, as activists, enthusiasts and foremost a group of friends that will forever share their love and admiration for Frenchy Cannoli.

Our thoughts are with his family and friends in these times.

May he forever rest in peace.



  1. article about his late work in California published in Cannabis Now Magazine on Oct. 22nd 2015: https://cannabisnow.com/artisan-hash-frenchy-cannoli/
  2. Seedbank Aficianado in Medocino California                                                    /www.aficionadoseeds.com
  3. A list of his gathered articles  and other publications:                                   https://frenchycannoli.com/articles
  4. The Lost Art of the Hashashin Part I in Weed World Magazine 137, Nov. 2018 https://static1.squarespace.com/static/59cd905351a5846569cfbbca/t/5c6c46b6104c7b6cbebf8679/1550599868539/Weed+World+Issue+137-compressed.pdf 

full moon sesh 2021 gran canaria

Fullmoon Sesh: Cannabis extraction artists reach for the stars

We're going to Gran Canaria on July 22nd, 2021 to meet some of the real heroes of the cannabis movement. It will be an excursion to the origins of a world-shaking movement, a meeting with the artists and creators of unique genetics and alchemists of the finest cannabis extracts.

The Canary Islands not only attract with fantastic year-round weather and both diverse vegetation and topography, but also inspire the cannasseur of the world with one of the liveliest cannabis scenes on our globe. There is a significant accumulation of cannabis social clubs in the Canary Islands run by talented gardeners and extractors. They came from all over the world, buying properties, collaborating with locals, and running club-owned cannabis cultivation, processing, and sales outlets. The cooperation and the exchange of know-how and process knowledge come first in the Social Club model and it is therefore not surprising that the Social Clubs are miles ahead of the large capital-intensive cannabis companies in terms of product quality.

Learn from the cannabis extraction professionals at the Full Moon Sesh in Gran Canaria

At the exclusive Fullmoon Sesh, a cannabis cup specializing purely in extracts, the grand masters of cannabis extraction from all over Europe will compete for the golden full moon. Numerous cannabis extractors come up with very different products to convince the jurors of their strengths. Whether may it be Vape Cart, Diamonds and Sauce or THCa - we definitely will salivate on the cup when terpenes and cannabinoids melt on the banger and make their way to the taste buds of the cannasseurs throat.

Those interested in the cannabis industry can always learn something new in the Canary Islands

As already mentioned, one of the densest and most advanced cannabis cultures in the world can be found in the Canary Islands, comparable to hotspots in California, Oregon or Barcelona. Here the talents of ambitious breeders of the genetics of tomorrow and the willingness to experiment of cannabis extractors come together on a level that the scents of the extracts envelop an entire archipelago in a magical scent.

On islands like Lanzarote, untamed nature meets meticulous precision; on Gran Canaria, banana trees meet Strawberry Banana Hash Rosin. Day after day, extraction processes are questioned by passionate cannabis enthusiasts, get further developed and gradually raised to ever higher levels of perfection, until the Canarian extracts eventually reach the Milky Way.

The experts and social clubs in the Canary Islands are always worth a trip to bring together extraordinary nature and craftsmanship. While one day you can enjoy the beauty of the year-round air-conditioned island, the next day you can take a tour to the most gifted cannabis extractors and growers to learn about the process and product knowledge of unique cannabis preparations. We are therefore going to Gran Canaria on July 22nd, 2021 to attend the legendary Fullmoon Sesh. For everyone who missed this event in the second year of Covid-19, we offer the possibility of establishing contacts in order to offer you a journey full of bits of knowledge and visits to the most talented extraction artists. Simply contact us at info@research-gardens.com and we will arrange a trip including accommodation, organized visits and tours to the extraction masters and culinary delicacies.

Lactic acid bateria

LAB - lactic acid bacteria I The bouncer of Korean Natural Farming (KNF)

What are lactic acid bacteria actually?

The term lactic acid bacteria is the German translation for Lactic Acid Bacteria. This English term is used internationally in the Korean Natural Farming scene. Lactic acid bacteria can be isolated via fermentation processes and used for garden applications. We will go into more detail about the exact application possibilities in the next chapter, but first let's look at the structure and taxonomy of the microbes.

LAB are a large group of bacteria and cannot be narrowed down to a single species. They have been used for centuries by many different cultures for fermentation and preservation of foods such as sauerkraut or kimchi. These bacteria survive even the low/acidic PH produced by fermentation, which also allows them to survive our digestive system when consumed. These bacteria are very good for our intestines and help with constipation and keep the microorganism milieu in balance.

LAB in the Gut and its effects
(Source 3)

As if that wasn't enough, LABs are also responsible for the production of yogurt and cheese, as they form the basis for separating the rennet from the liquid. However, in today's high-tech production, native rennet strains are no longer used but specially grown cultures. This is because different population compositions also produce the different types of cheese.

What are LAB used for in Korean Natural Farming?

Now we have heard a lot about commercial use, but how does it benefit us now in gardening? Since there are three different purposes, we will make a small separate chapter for each.

Use as a single preparation

Now that we have isolated our LAB serum, we can use it as is. The only thing to keep in mind is to dilute it with water, otherwise it can give off a rather strong odor after application. The rate for this is about 1:1000 with pure, antibiotic-free water. Unfortunately, an exact figure cannot be given here, as each LAB serum is colonized to a different extent.

It can then be sprayed directly onto the soil around the base of the plant. This prevents colonization with harmful bacteria and speeds up the conversion of organic fertilizers. A special advantage that LABs offer is the conversion of sugars to hexanoates (salt of caproic acid = hexanoic acid shown in source 4), which are precursors and building blocks for terpenes. This means that the plant does not have to produce these substances itself, which is energy-intensive, but can use them directly. This saves energy, which can be used again for the production of sugars and other metabolic processes.

Biosynthesis of Cannabinoids and Terpenes
(Source 4)

The next and important point is the use in the phytosanitary field (pest prevention). Again the LABs can shine by being extremely strong and competitive against other microorganisms. As already described in the production, after a certain incubation/propagation time they can take over almost the entire area by claiming the available food (sugar, especially lactose) for themselves.

Not only against other bacteria but also against fungi such as powdery mildew they can successfully assert themselves. This is how the oldschool trick of the milk/water mixture against the uninvited guest came about. However, this is now much more efficient and faster with the help of our LAB serum.

The concentration for this also remains at 1:1000, since the LABs can multiply very quickly, if enough food is available. The whole thing should be applied as a foliar spray by spraying the plant with an atomizer, but take care not to go below a particle size of 5µm, otherwise this will kill the bacteria.

Lactic acid bateria
(Source 5)

The treatment is extremely effective in a protective (preventive) way, but its effectiveness decreases with the severity of the infestation, so it is only partially curative (plant is infested but does not show symptoms yet) and poorly eradicative (strong visible infestation). In case of eradicative planned action, a synthetic fungicide should be resorted to, if it is really absolutely necessary to save this cultivar as in the case of phenotypic selection.

Another point to consider with lactic acid bacteria is their ripening delaying effect, which can give undesirable results especially in the last 2-3 weeks of the flowering phase. From week 3 at the latest week 5 (depending on the duration of cultivar flowering of course) the addition should be stopped, otherwise neither the calyx hairs will turn brown nor the trichomes will mature properly.

Use as compost starter

Now we come to one of the most important point of LAB application: Its role in the initial processes of any compost.

First, we should look at the basic process of lactic acid fermentation, which is an anaerobic (without oxygen) catabolic (degrading) process. Here, glucose is converted to pyruvate and this is converted to lactate (salt of lactic acid) with the help of a coenzyme. This lactate is the starting material for the following decomposition processes, which finally leads to our beloved compost.

Depiction of Lactic acid fermentation and subsequent degradation of Pyruvat


This process can be further divided into homo- and heterofermentative processes, after which the respective bacterial strains are also differentiated.

The first process is the "pure form", which means that this degradation is pure, i.e. apart from lactate no other by-products are formed (apart from the "used" coenzyme). Although lactate is also acidic, it is much gentler for microbes than acetic acid, thanks to its lower pKA value. Because with a low pKA value, the acid or salt of an acid can interact poorly with the microbial cells.

Heterofermentative fermentation, on the other hand, as you can probably imagine, produces other substances such as acetic acid and ethanol, which are highly toxic to our compost. This can lead to a lowering of the PH levels and the subsequent tilting of the population. You can recognize this at home by a strong smelling compost, which looks rather slimy and structureless than decomposed.

Homo- vs Heterofermentative Metabolism
(Source 6)

The starting point of these microbial conversion processes in compost is almost always started by two different strains of LAB.

The first is "Pediococcus acidilactici" (homofermentative), which accounts for more than half of the bacterial strains grown, this inhibits the synthesis of acetic acid, which in turn is extremely toxic to most auxiliary bacteria.

The second one is "Weissella paramesenteroides" (heterofermentative), which is the counterpart of the above mentioned specimen. This one produces exactly large amounts of acetic acid and slows down the composting process accordingly. This synthesis drastically decreases the PH in the entire colonized area and thus prevents the start of the decomposition process.

Accordingly, one should pay attention to the ratio in which it is applied. In a study of the "the science of total Environment" Magazines a ratio of 10^1,5 was found as optimum.

In this optimal ratio, the lactate blocks the PH reduction by the acetic acid and thus allows the colonization of the rotting raw material with fungi, which can degrade complex organic compounds such as lignin or chitin. The resulting degradation products again form reactants (starting materials) for terpene synthesis and activate systemic (plant internal) pest defense processes such as the formation of R-proteins.

If these fermentation processes are now finished after approx. two days, Paecilomyces species begin with the colonization of the material, the degradation of organic acids (PH increases -> aerobic bacteria settle from approx. Ph=6.5). Thus, the microbial aerobic degradation process can be started.


Combination with other KNF products

In the last part of the application in the horticultural field, the synergetic effect with the other KNF preparations must of course be mentioned. Mostly it is used right from the beginning as part of the Seed-Soak Solution (SSS), an organic solution that optimally prepares the seed for germination.

As mentioned before, LAB can repel competing bacteria or fungi (e.g. Pythium) lurking on the small, weak seedling. The exact mixture of the SSS will be discussed in a separate chapter, but roughly speaking, it is a combination of BRV (brown rice vinegar), FPJ (fermented plant juice), OHN (oriental herbal medicine) and our LAB.

But what are the other preparations for? Good question, because these also bring massive benefits to your sustainable garden. The rice vinegar buffers the PH range around your seeds into the right range so that the formation of anaerobic metabolites (alcohol etc) is suppressed.

The fermented plant sap gives a wide range of beneficial raw materials such as yeast species/hormones/enzymes and nutrients. This little lunch package helps the seed to establish itself quickly and strongly so that it quickly enters the "safe" phase where it can no longer be destroyed by just a small fungus.

Finally, the OHN is added, which together with the LABs plays the bouncer against fungi. The combination of alcohols (very very low concentration, which damages pathogens, but cannot harm our seed) and the active ingredients of ginger, angelica, licorice, garlic and cinnamon makes it almost impossible for pathogens to damage the seedling.


Another important application is the combination with IMO (indigenous microorganisms). Here LAB forms one of the starting materials in the collection of IMO also again with the protective aspect. Because we want strong, composting fungi and not fast-living bacteria.

But also in the preparation of a new soil mixture it can be added together with IMO or Liquid IMO to create a good base and stimulate the nutrient cycle.

Inputs: Tasks: Mixing ratio: Seedling: Vegetative state Flower I (Week 1-4) Flower II (Week 5-8) Flower III (Week 9-10)
OHN Medicine 1:1000 4ml 4ml 4ml 4ml 4ml
BRV Catalysor 1:500 8ml 4ml 8ml 8ml
FPJ Food Veg 1:500 8ml 8ml 8ml
FFJ Food Flower 1:500 8ml 8ml
LAB Starter 1:1000 4ml 4ml
FAA Fuel 1:1000 4ml 4ml
SW Minerals 1:30 120ml 130ml 150ml
WCP Bone builder 1:800 5ml 5ml

How can I grow the LAB myself?

We have now heard about its many uses, but how do we put it into practice?
First, we need some materials:

  • rice
  • A lactose source (milk/milk powder/isolate)
  • Clean water
  • A large glass jar
  • A breathable cover (paper (uncoated)/silk cloth/fabric)
  • Rubber band/thread
  1. First, we soak the rice in water for 48std to filter out the starch. The rice should be completely covered and stirred 4-5 times.
  2. The water is filled into the previously washed jar to about 2/3, covered with the help of the cloth and tightened with the rubber band. This prevents pests from creeping in. It is especially important that the jar does not contain any residues of detergents/vinegar cleaners or similar agents.
  3. Now you can incubate the jar at room temperature out of reach of sunlight for 3-5days. The time varies depending on the temperature and richness of the environment in lactobacilli.
  4. After the waiting time, a semi-solid film should have formed on the surface. Do not worry it is not mold Lactic Acid Bacteria Züchtungsbeginn                (Source 1)
  5. Now you can remove the lid and pour off the water, but be sure to remove the semi-solid part that floats on top.
  6. Then the lactose source, in our case milk, can be mixed with the opaque water in a 10:1 ratio. However, the final glass should still not be more than 2/3 full, otherwise it will overflow.
  7. The jar can now be sealed again as before in a breathable manner and stored. The mixture should now not be shaken during the fermentation phase.
  8. After another 4-6 days the mass should have separated as shown in the picture below. Again, the temperature is crucial, however, 25 ° C should not be exceeded, otherwise it can go bad.
    .              (Source 1)
  9. The yellow liquid is now our LAB serum, which we strain and take great care not to mix it with the solid again.
  10. The mixture should have a slightly sweet smell and if it starts to stink (sour milk), pour it away.
  11. If the serum is to last longer than 3-4 days it must be stored half-open (CO2 is formed) in the refrigerator. For very long storage (3 weeks +) it should be mixed with equal weight of brown sugar so that there is no unbound liquid left. This puts the LAB into a kind of cryo-sleep also called dormancy, where they become active again as soon as enough water is available again.

Can I still use the curd/lab?

The real rennet or curd, which has settled on top, can be removed and eaten. Especially for animals like dogs, pigs and chickens it is very nutritious and helps the digestion by its probiotic effect.
For human consumption, however, it should first be made into cheese, for this there is a super
tutorial video by Chris Trump


Lactobacilli and the human intestinal flora

As already mentioned in the introduction, lactic acid bacteria contribute significantly to intestinal health. Here they keep the balance between acidifying and alkaline acting bacteria. Because by fighting for nutrients, they can outcompete smaller, faster-digesting bacteria. This is good for us, because when bacteria convert nutrients, mostly H+ ions are released, which can lead to a rapid drop in Phs (PH = negative decadic logarithm of H+ concentration). This causes an unbalanced intestinal flora, resulting in digestive problems and even ineffective utilization/absorption of nutrients.

Unpasteurized dairy products contain a lot of lactobacilli, but can also contain pathogens so we would personally advise against it unless you have a microscope and can really differentiate the species.

A good option would be tiny doses of LAB serum (too much can easily lead to unpleasant side effects like diarrhea or abdominal pain). The best alternative in our opinion is to process the "curd" into cheese and eat it. But even here you should pay close attention to the quality, because the curd can sometimes tip over due to the non-sterile production, if it is too warm. This has a similar effect as fermented milk on one so it is not recommended.

But there are many good tutorials on cheese making and ripening with separate microbial strains, so you can easily make your own dream cheese.





  1. "Natural Farming: Lactic Acid Bacteria"; David M. Ikeda1 , Eric Weinert, Jr.1 , Kim C.S. Chang1 , Joseph M. McGinn1 , Sherri A. Miller1 Cheyanne Keliihoomalu2 , and Michael W. DuPonte2 1 Cho Global Natural Farming Hawai‘i, Hilo, HI
  2. "Lactic acid bacteria modulate organic acid production during early stages of food waste composting";Quyen Ngoc Minh Tran 1, Hiroshi Mimoto 1, Mitsuhiko Koyama 1, Kiyohiko Nakasaki 2Q
  3. "Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria with Potential to Design Natural Biofunctional Health-Promoting Dairy Foods"; Daniel M. Linares1,2, Carolina Gómez1, Erica Renes3, José M. Fresno3, María E. Tornadijo3, R. P. Ross2 and Catherine Stanton1,2*
  4. "Complete biosynthesis of cannabinoids and their unnatural analogues in yeast"; Veronica Benites;
  5. "The value of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Bees’s stomachs and honey for human medicine"; Mark;
  6. "Biotechnological valorization of agro industrial and household wastes for lactic acid production";Juliana Romo-Buchelly, María Rodríguez-Torres, Fernando Orozco-Sánchez;

Korean Natural Farming I The future of sustainable agriculture

Why should I use KNF?

Our environment is not doing well, whether it is due to climate change, overuse of pesticides or over-exploitation of fertilizers.
One major influence is the large monocultures that make up a big part of the crops grown annually around the world. In the graph below, we see that corn accounts for almost a third, the majority of which is used for animal feed.

Vergleich der Erntegutmengen nach Kultur

(Illustration 1)

This intensive land use has resulted in an enormous removal of phosphorus from the soil. This, coupled with a steadily increasing world population, poses a challenge to conventional agriculture which will not have enough mineral phosphate fertilizer to meet global demand by about 2050. Below we have included a small comparison between phosphorus supplies and its consumption.

Darstellung des zukünftigen Phosphatmangels auf der Erde

(Illustration 3)

The occurring shortage of phosphorus also has the effect that there is less yield per plant. This again increases the demand for agricultural land, which is decimated by the increasing sealing of areas. Now the question is: How do we combat this trend?
One promising option is to combine conventional methods in a mitigated form with a sustainable, regenerative farming style such as Korean Natural Farming. Especially by using indigenous adapted microorganisms and the very effective composting/recycling of organic waste, we can counteract this trend.
It should be clear, however, that on a large, world-supplying scale, not only natural farming methods can be used, since one must ensure a basic security or basic yield with fertilizer salts.

Vergleich Mais mit/ohne Phosphormangel

(Illustration 2)

However, we as cannabis growers and "small scale producers" can fully work with these methods and thus reduce our Co2 footprint. This is because our beloved indoor growing method in particular is unfortunately very resource intensive.
While this is usually essential for legality reasons, KNF and Living Soil methods can save quite a bit.
How to do this and still keep your yield or even increase it, we will take a closer look at in the next articles.

What exactly is Korean natural farming?

The origin of this concept can be found in, as the name suggests, Korea. South Korea to be exact. Here the inventor Cho Han-Kyu, also called Master Cho, thought about how to achieve good results in horticulture/agriculture with old techniques, implemented in a modern way. Through this, a holistic concept was created, which owes its extraordinary results to the interaction between indigenous microorganisms and fermentation processes.

Master Cho Portrait

Master Cho (Source 1)

Special attention was also paid to cost minimization. By using locally available inputs and waste recycling, KNF is one of the cheapest methods to achieve good results.
Master Cho got the basic ideas behind local inputs from his studies in Japan, where he spent several years before that with highly respected horticulturists such as Yasushi Oinoue.
Back in South Korea, he combined this with the "old" techniques of the Koreans, who had already done some research in this area through kimchi and other fermentation products.

This resulted in the concept that is now trending among sustainable farmers worldwide.
It works so well that Master Cho has already been arrested due to pressure from agricultural companies in South Korea and has been imprisoned for a short time. But his teachings were still spread around the world and eventually he was released again.

How do we make use of the full potential?

As described in the previous chapter, KNF works by combining different preparations that perform different tasks.
This division makes it possible to create the perfect mixture at each stage of growth. But what is absolutely necessary, what is optional and how do you obtain your preparations?

This and much more will be described in more detail in the coming articles. This article will give you the basics of Korean Natural Farming so that you can choose which mixtures to apply at which time.

The Basics

We have already said several times that the interaction between the living organisms and parts of the soil plays the most important role in KNF, but why not just take bottles from fertilizer manufacturers, which promise the highest possible yield with their mixture?

Although these can also give good results, the labor and environmental aspect is crucial here.
To get the same yield and quality standards on a hydroponic system as on a Living Soil, you have to grow the same clone more often to meet and not exceed the respective nutrient requirements.
This is because mineral nutrients actually mean nothing other than that they are already present in their charged (ionized) form. Nitrogen, for example, is present in fertilizers as nitrate (NO3-  for annual plants) or ammonium (NH4+ for perennial plants). Through the charge, the nutrients are more or less "pressed" into the roots, as substances are absorbed here via charge gradients.
Many compare this procedure with force feeding, because the plant has no chance to reject excess nutrients and thus the famous "fertilizer burns" occur.

Aufnahme Nährstoffe durch Wurzel

(Illustration 4)

In so-called organic cultivation, on the other hand, one uses the symbiosis between plant and microorganisms/fungi. It is true that the term "organic" is difficult to define, since rock flour is also used here to supply minerals. These are partially ionized and therefore immediately available.
However, the majority, just like other inputs, is mineralized only gradually. How fast this works depends on the mineralization rate, which in turn depends on many factors.
I will break this down in detail in the Living Soil article, but here I have written down a small list of influencing factors.

  • PH-value of the soil (6-7 is best)
  • Temperature (20-25°C is optimal )
  • Microorganism composition
  • Microorganism quantity
  • Soil moisture
  • Soil structure

All these factors can be positively influenced by adding KNF product. These either directly promote the microbial population, provide nourishment or displace pathogens (harmful organisms). The soil structure is also positively influenced, as the bacteria release a kind of slime that cements the soil particles together, thus creating better water-holding properties and nutrient storage.
These microorganisms can be added exogenously (from outside) to push mineralization in a certain direction. However, this is not an instant solution; the goal should always be a balanced population of different species.

In fact, if you have a complete biotope, the plant controls the amount of certain bacteria through its root exudates. Root exudates are sugar compounds on which microbes can feed excellently. The plant exchanges them for nutrients, which in turn promotes the particular microbial species that provides the desired nutrient.
A small example: The plant wants more potassium, then it releases a specific exudate matrix, which is detected by the potassium-releasing bacteria and these are then stimulated to exchange as shown by the illustration.

Symbiose Pflanze/Bodenorganismen

(Illustration 5)

Furthermore, VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and organic acids are released for pathogen defense and release of nutrients.

The importance of local Inputs

Why do I talk about local inputs all the time? I know I sound like a broken record, but this factor has a serious impact on the success of KNF products.

We are taking advantage of the full range of organisms that are perfectly adapted to our location. In other words we use natural selection to find out which microbes are best suited for our spot.
We also protect our native biotope, which would otherwise be displaced by sometimes invasive species. While this may be partially intentional it breaks down the natural homeostasis (balance) and can lead to undesirable side effects.
Another point is that the plant can develop to its maximum potential by controlling its own nutrient supply. This refers not only to yield but also to the quality of the material such as terpene content and trichome number or density.
This does not mean that locally there are only good varieties. You should follow the recipes exactly and pay attention to identifying characteristics like color and odor. How to determine these exactly I will show you at the respective products.

Gesammelte IMO Stämme

Collected indigenous Microorganisms  (Illustration 6)

If you are interested in the philosophy and further insights into the development and application of KNF, you should read the books of Master Cho himself. Some very good Youtube videos are also available from KNF greats such as Chris Trump or PureKNFDrake.

The Life Cycle of Plants

Now we have learned that with different inputs you promote different populations which again have an impact on the control of the plant. Now let's take a look at the life cycle of a cannabis plant and what is needed in which phases to be able to compose the different recipes.


In this phase we don't need strong nutrient products yet, but we just need to prepare the soil and the seedling for the coming growth phase. For this we provide good microbes and prevent the expansion of the population of pathogens.

Vegetative Phase

In this phase the foundation for a successful harvest is made and we have to feed the plant accordingly. Products with very high nitrogen or amino acid content should be given together with the basic supply. This is where the root system and a stable branch/leaf system establishes itself. That is why we should apply both soil and foliar fertilizers.

Flower initiation

We now have a strong and thick growing plant and want to move into the flowering phase as quickly as possible. This should not only be fast but also corresponding with the yield potential.
To create the right basis for a high yield, the plant needs the basic supply and especially a boost of calcium and phosphorus in this phase.

Main Flower Stage/generative Stage

As the name suggests, this is the phase in which most weight is gained and quality can be significantly influenced.
Special attention should be paid to the supply of minerals and potassium/phosphorus.
It is also important to mention that we work here only with soil application, because we do not want to have residues of the agents or a risk of mold (Botrytis cinerea).


We enter this phase in the last 1-2 weeks before harvest. Now we want to induce maximum terpene formation and maturation of the trichome heads.
For this we use similar inputs as in the main phase

A brief overview of KNF products

Now you are probably wondering, what should I use in each phase? The answer will probably be superfluous after this chapter, because I will now explain to you the main components of the KNF regime.
Here, however, it is not possible to distinguish by a strict NPK specification as with conventional preparations, because the products are so much more than pure fertilizer salts. In order not to go beyond the scope of this short overview, I will deal with production and exact modes of operation in the respective articles on the specific products.
For this reason, KNF tends to speak of tasks that the product performs. For OHN, for example, the term medicinal component is used because this strengthens general plant health.

Structure: Abbreviation = original name written out = translation = effect.

OHN = Oriental Herbal Medicine = orient. Herbal Medicine = medicine -> general plant health is strengthened by stimulating the immune systems
BRV = Brown Rice Vinegar = catalyst -> without this the PH partly fluctuates and some other inputs can not be implemented
FPJ = Fermented Plant Juice = food -> nutrients broken down/available from green plant material through fermentation + carbohydrates for
FFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice = food -> same principle as FPJ except that here fruiting parts are taken and therefore in the flowering phase
LAB = Lactic-acid Bacteria = Lactobacteria = support -> these very strong microorganisms displace pathogens, fight Botrytis and accelerate
FAA = Fish Amino-acids = fish amino acids = fuel -> this preparation gives especially in Veg really gas by the immense N-content and the completely preserved
amino acids the soil life is stimulated so strongly that the soil temperature rises and the plant makes large
growth leaps in a short time
IMO = Indigenious Microorganisms = backbone -> IMO makes up to 80% of the KNF performance and is therefore the most important ingredient, since it
brings the basic stock of soil life without which nothing works. Here there are some
gradations, but we will only go into this in the designated chapter

WSCP = Water-soluble Calciumphosphat = Bone-soluble Calciumphosphate -> Hereby we support the plant in the build-up of flower buds through
additional calcium and phosphate. This allows more nutrients to pass through the
ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and thus a better supply can be guaranteed.
supply can be guaranteed
SW = Sea Water (water + 5% salt) = Mineral Complex -> This rather simple preparation consists of only two inputs, but has a strong influence. Salt is extremely
full of nutrients and should therefore be used sparingly.

How do I combine these Inputs?

Now the question is what fits best in which stage. We have already outlined it in the description of the stages, but we still have an exact list for you here. This is the compilation as master Cho personally created it for 4L of water

Inputs Aufgabe Mixtureratio Seedling Vegetative Flower- Initiation Main Phase Flower Ripening
OHN Medicine 1:1000 4ml 4ml 4ml 4ml 4ml
BRV Catalyst 1:500 8ml 4ml 8ml 8ml  
FPJ Food 1:500 8ml 8ml 8ml    
FFJ Food 1:500       8ml 8ml
LAB Supporter 1:1000 4ml 4ml      
FAA Fuel 1:1000 4ml 4ml      
SW Minerals 1:30 120ml     130ml 150ml
WCP Bonebuilder 1:800 5ml   5ml    
(Source 2)

From this you can already deduce it: The standard administration in each phase consists of the so-called "Maintenance Spray", which includes OHN, BRV and FPJ except in the ripening phase, here you replace the FPJ with FFJ from ripe fruit. From there you can see what the plant needs or what would still be beneficial and can then add it on top of the Maintenance Spray (MS).
For example, if there is a calcium deficiency at the beginning of flowering, you add WCP to the MS and use it as a spray.
Now we only need the recipes and seasonal tips, then we have also worked through the chapter KNF.
One tip in advance, store a lot of brown sugar and by that I really mean a lot. You will need it for the next recipes.

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  1. „Korean Natural Farming: Master Cho Biography“; Nico Hill for Gardenculturemagazin; 06.05.2019; (https://gardenculturemagazine.com/korean-natural-farming-master-cho-biography/)
  2. „Cho’s Natural Farming: Recipes and Instructions for Use“; Cho Han-Kyu


  1. Pie Chart; VOX; (https://www.vox.com/a/explain-food-america)
  2. Maize P Mangel; Mary; (https://www.pinterest.nz/pin/38632509278445644/?autologin=true)
  3. Improving Plant Phosphorus (P) Acquisition by Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria; (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318963768_Improving_Plant_Phosphorus_P_Acquisition_by_Phosphate-Solubilizing_Bacteria)
  4. Root Nutrient Foraging; R. Giehl, N. v. Wiren; (http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/166/2/509)
  5. „A Return to the Wild: Root Exudates and Food Security“; C.Preece, J.Penuelas; (https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/fulltext/S1360-1385(19)30247-X)
  6. „KNF and IMO“; Nico Hill; ( https://gardenculturemagazine.com/korean-natural-farming-and-indigenous-microorganisms/ )